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Ship Construction

Load Lines and Draught Marks
 
Deck line
plimsollmark

The deck line is a horizontal line 300 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth. It shall be marked amidships on each side of the ship, and its upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface of the freeboard deck intersects the outer surface of the shell, provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the ship on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the identification of the freeboard deck shall in all cases be indicated on the International Load Line Certificate (1966).
Freeboard. The freeboard assigned is the distance measured vertically downwards amidships from the upper edge of the deck line to the upper edge of the related load line.
Freeboard deck. The freeboard deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to weather and sea, which has permanent means of closing all openings in the weather part thereof, and below which all the openings in the sides of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing. In a ship having a discontinuous freeboard deck, the lowest line of the exposed deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the freeboard deck. At the option of the owner and subject to the approval of the Administration, a lower deck may be designated as the freeboard deck, provided it is a complete and permanent deck continuous in a fore and aft direction at least between the machinery space and peak bulkheads and continuous athwartships. When this lower deck is stepped the lowest line of the deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the freeboard deck. When a lower deck is designated as the freeboard deck, that part of the hull which extends above the freeboard deck is treated as a superstructure so far as concerns the application of the conditions of assignment and the calculation of freeboard. It is from this deck that the freeboard is calculated.

 
Load Line Mark
The Load Line Mark shall consist of a ring 300 millimetres in outside diameter and 25 millimetres wide which is intersected by a horizontal line 450 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth, the upper edge of which passes through the centre of the ring. The centre of the ring shall be placed amidships and at a distance equal to the assigned summer freeboard measured vertically below the upper edge of the deck line. The Load line rules which were brought in were due to the fact that the ships were being loaded in such a way that the ships were foundering.
Thus the important fact to remember is that it was the freeboard that was being restricted, from very low to a safe figure.
Depending on this freeboard the load line circle was marked as well as the other marks were made for different zones and densities. Thus the chapter on CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD is very important as it determines as to how much would be the distance between the deck line and the load line circle.
Once this is determined the load line marks are painted, keeping the above in reference. The calculations give rise to the assigned summer freeboard.
 
Lines to be used with the Load Line Mark
The lines which indicate the load line assigned in accordance with these Regulations shall be horizontal lines 230 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth which extend forward of, unless expressly provided otherwise, and at right angles to, a vertical line 25 millimetres in breadth marked at a distance 540 millimetres forward of the centre of the ring.
(a) The Summer Load Line indicated by the upper edge of the line which passes through the centre of the ring and also by a line marked S.
(b) The Winter Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked W.
(c) The Winter North Atlantic Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked WNA.
(d) The Tropical Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked T.
(e) The Fresh Water Load Line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked F. The Fresh Water Load Line in summer is marked abaft the vertical line. The difference between the Fresh Water Load Line in summer and the Summer Load Line is the allowance to be made for loading in fresh water at the other load lines.
(f) The Tropical Fresh Water Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked TF, and marked abaft the vertical line.
If timber freeboards are assigned in accordance with these Regulations, the timber load lines shall be marked in addition to ordinary load lines. These lines shall be horizontal lines 230 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth which extend abaft unless expressly provided otherwise, and are at right angles to, a vertical line 25 millimetres in breadth marked at a distance 540 millimetres abaft the centre of the ring. The following timber load lines shall be used:
(a) The Summer Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LS.
(b) The Winter Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LW.
(c) The Winter North Atlantic Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LWNA
(d) The Tropical Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LT.
(e) The Fresh Water Timber Load Line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LF and marked forward of the vertical line. The difference between the Fresh Water Timber Load Line in summer and the Summer Timber Load Line is the allowance to be made for loading in fresh water at the other timber load lines.
(f) The Tropical Fresh Water Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LTF and marked forward of the vertical line.
Where the characteristics of a ship or the nature of the ship’s service or navigational limits make any of the seasonal lines inapplicable, these lines may be omitted.

Where a ship is assigned a greater than minimum freeboard so that the load line is marked at a position corresponding to, or lower than, the lowest seasonal load line assigned at minimum freeboard in accordance with the present Convention, only the Fresh Water Load Line need be marked. On sailing ships only the Fresh Water Load Line and the Winter North Atlantic Load Line need be marked. Where a Winter North Atlantic Load Line is identical with the Winter Load Line corresponding to the same vertical line, this load line shall be marked W.
Additional load lines required by other international conventions in force may be marked at right angles to and abaft the vertical line specified in paragraph (1) of this Regulation.
plimsollmark

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